What is SS USB? – A Quick Guide for Amateur Producers & Engineers

What is SS USB? – A Quick Guide for Amateur Producers & Engineers

SuperSpeed USB was introduced in 2008. But despite being a relatively “old” technology, many amateur producers and engineers still aren’t familiar with SS USB and how to differentiate it from its predecessors. Let’s break it all down.

The Universal Serial Bus (USB) is the industry standard that establishes specifications for cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication, and power supply (interfacing) between computers, peripherals and other computers.

A USB port is a USB port, right?

Wrong. There are many different USB port types and generations relating to speed and performance. The latest generation on the market can be categorized under SS USB or USB 3.1.

Let’s get into what SS USB is and what makes it different.

What is SS USB?

SS USB stand for SuperSpeed USB. The first iteration of SS USB was introduced in November 2008 as USB 3.0, and it ushered in a new era of speed and power from its predecessor, USB 2.0, or High Speed USB.

More recently, USB 3.1, or Gen 2, has come out, bringing further increases in both power and data transfer speeds.

How Can You Tell If You’re Using an SS USB?

There are very little visual differences between USB 2.0 and 3.0. They both use the same standard connector type A, but the USB 3.0 type A receptacles and plugs are typically colored blue.

USB 3.1 also supports other types of USB connectors such as Type B, Micro-B, and the more universally adopted Type C.

What Makes SS USB Different?

SS USB provides dramatic performance improvement over its 2.0 predecessors.

USB High Speed (USB 2.0) supports a bandwidth of up to 480 Mbps, while 3.0 supports up to 5.0 Gbps, and 3.1 (Gen 2) up to 10 Gbps. Likewise, SuperSpeed can support more power. A USB 2.0 port can deliver 500 mA of power while USB 3.1 is able to output 900 mA, an increase in total power delivery from 2.5 W to 4.5 W (at 5 V).

In layman’s terms, all those figures mean USB 3.1 can support devices requiring more power and charge them faster. These data transfer speeds are critical to making sure recording equipment, including interfaces and workstations, is connected and performing optimally.

What Happens if I Use USB 3.1 Cables with 2.0 Ports?

USB 3.1 cables are backwards compatible with USB 2.0 ports, except for Type B connectors. Type C connectors require an adapter. And USB 2.0 cables cannot be used with a 3.0 port.

One thing to note – if you’re using 2.0 ports with 3.1 cables, the cables will only transfer at 2.0 rates. That means you won’t get the power and data transfer speed benefits.

Conclusion – USBs Aren’t All Alike

So, now you know. Not all USBs are alike. In fact, USB is always evolving.

Currently USB4 is in the works, and it will boast 40Gbit/s data transfer speed. Keep in mind that USB4 will only use the newer, more universally accepted Type C connector to minimize confusion. USB4 will also include Thunderbolt 3 compatibility.

Either way, you can count on Hosa to have the USB cables you need to connect your studio setup. Use our Cable Finder to explore our USB products and find the cables you need.

Cable Connector Components: How Much Do They Really Matter?

Everyone knows what a cable is for. But do cable connector components matter when it comes to tone or sound? Let’s find out.

Before we get too far into the post, let’s make sure we have the basics down.

What are Cable Connectors? – An Overview

Cable connectors are the ends or the “tips” of cables that connect the input and output devices that need to transfer signal. They’re designed to provide a consistent contact point and stable connection.

Most connectors are made with some combination of copper, gold, nickel, zinc, and tin. More expensive and higher-end connector alloys include silver, phosphor bronze, or rhodium, which can all have sonic advantages.

Overall, each of these metals brings its own properties to the table. For example, gold-plated connectors withstand corrosion more effectively because gold withstands corrosion more than most metals.

At the end of the day, it really comes down to what you’re looking to get out of a cable. If you’re looking for a cable that will transmit the best sound, then your connector components will matter. If you’re looking for something that will be durable and last from sessions to session, then the components matter less than the overall build quality.

Let’s get into some of the things to look for in connectors when shopping for cables.

What to Look for in a Connector

#1. Make Sure You’re Getting the Right Connector Types

First (and most importantly) you want to make sure you’re getting the right connectors for the equipment you want to hook up.

Some of the most common connectors for audio equipment include XLR, 1/4’’, RCA, and 3.5mm (often mistakenly called 1/8’’). These connectors all perform essentially the same function, although it’s good to know that RCA connectors can only be used for unbalanced connections.

If you need cables with mismatched connectors, that can be a challenge. Find a place with a lot of options will help you find what you need. You can always use our cable finder to find exactly what you’re looking for if you need a hand.

#2. Make Sure You’re Getting a Solid Build

The next thing to look for is solid build quality. Cheaply made connectors are more prone to fail. Some can introduce noise due to poor isolation, and it makes your cable microphonic – something you don’t want. If the solder points break down internally, it makes the cable unusable unless you can diagnose the problem and solder it yourself.

Make sure your cable connectors have solid solder points. This will make them more resistant to strain and wear and tear. Robust connectors have a better time handling the constant use of being on the road, some even having dedicated strain-relief components. They’ll also be able to withstand the elements better, especially changes in humidity.

Speaking of humidity, let’s talk about storage quickly.

Where you store your cables can have a huge effect on the durability of the connectors. Connectors stored in humid or ocean-coast climates are notorious for failure due to oxidation from the atmosphere. Also, wrapping your cables in the proper way can help ensure that the cable doesn’t break internally, and any fixes will be in the connector ends.

#3. Don’t Overthink It

Lastly, you really don’t have to overthink connectors. If you’re an audiophile, you can get into the detail on metal types and their effect on your sound. Often, these differences are inaudible to the untrained ear, so getting lost in the weeds when it comes to molecular properties and percentage of alloys is time better served towards more immediately consequential parts of creating sound.

Or, if you’re just looking for reliability in hooking up your gear, you can go with the more widely accepted industry standards and not think about it.

A good example is Neutrik and REAN connectors, which come with an industry-wide reputation for creating connectors that meet every demand. They are renowned for both their sonic transfer strength and reliable build quality. When in doubt, these connectors are a solid foundation to look out for.

Conclusion

To sum up, cable connector components do matter to an extent. You don’t want to use something that will break down after a lot of connecting and disconnecting. On top of that, you don’t want something that’s going to ruin your sound.

But finding the right connector doesn’t have to be a challenge. There are industry standards out there that are always solid options. Just make sure you’re getting the right connectors for your equipment and storing them properly.

Like everything in the music industry, you can go as deep as you want. There’s always the consideration of quality to cost, and how critical that is in your environment. The cables and connector types you might want in the studio for recording might not be the same ones you use on the road, or to practice in your bedroom.

No matter what you’re looking for, Hosa has connector components that will meet your needs. Check out our cable selection to see how we can connect your gear.

Cable Noise in Your Recording? 3 Biggest Causes in the Studio

Nothing ruins a good recording session like cable noise. In this post, we’ll discuss what causes cable noise in a studio environment, including ways to avoid or eliminate it.

Let’s get something straight. “Cable noise” isn’t actually noise made by cables.

Rather, it’s when a cable picks up interference – typified by an errant hum or buzz in the background of a recording – which then degrades the overall quality of signal, and thus sound, being transferred through the cable.

Cable noise is bad in any environment, but it’s kryptonite when recording. If the input signal isn’t as clean or transparent as possible, the resulting degradation in frequency or sound cannot be fixed. You can’t unmuffle something that lost all its detail or remove noise that was present when you recorded.

Interference can also cause issues during the mixing stage. If a recording is degraded due to cable noise, the producer won’t be able to hear the cues they need to do their job.

So, yeah, cable noise is an issue. But what actually causes it?

3 Biggest Causes of Cable Noise

Cable noise can be caused by many factors. But generally, there are three main buckets that all factors fall into. If you’re experiencing unwanted humming or buzzing in your recordings, these are the first things to check.

#1. Electrical Environment

Some studios have more electrical interference and ground hums than others. That can depend on a variety of factors including the wiring of the studio and the electronics present at the time of recording.

Ungrounded outlets can cause humming and overtones in a recording. If your studio only has two-pronged outlets, chances are you’ll need to get an electrician in to safely and properly rewire your outlets to ground.

Another environmental factor is the amount of electronic equipment in your studio. The more you have, the greater the risk of interference. Make sure your equipment is properly spaced, and that you only have what you need.

#2.  Shielding

Cables are usually made up of four layers – the inner, central core, a dielectric insulator, a metallic shield, and an outer jacket. All these layers are important, but if you want to get a handle on eliminating cable noise from your studio, start by looking at the shielding.

Proper shielding of your cables and electrical components in your studio can eliminate much of the unwanted humming and buzzing.

First, look for copper shielding over aluminum shielding. Next, look at the shielding type and the cable you’re buying. For mic and instrument cables, you’ll want to go with braided shielding. For interconnects between devices carrying line-level, you only need spiral shielding. The greater the percentage of coverage the better.

#3. Cable Type & Quality

The last factor concerns the type of cable being used – balanced or unbalanced – and the material quality of its parts.

Unbalanced cables carry an unbalanced signal using a signal wire and a ground wire. On the other hand, balanced cables carry a signal with a ground wire and two signal wires that are reversed in polarity, helping to cancel out noise as the signal travels down the wire.

Despite what the internet says, balanced cables aren’t inherently better than unbalanced. If they’re properly shielded, unbalanced cables can be used over a short distance in a studio setting. But if your studio is more spread out, balanced cables can help ensure the signal stays pure from point A to point B.

Once you’ve decided on the type of cable, you’ll also want to make sure those cables have high-quality connectors. You’re looking for something that’s durable and forms a clean connection that will last for years being plugged in repeatedly.

Conclusion

There’s no one-size-fits-all solution to cable noise. Every studio space is unique. Each piece of equipment acts and reacts differently to its surroundings. High-quality, properly shielded cables can go a long way to fixing studio noise issues. But bad cables can do a lot to make the situation worse.

Regardless, a cable’s only job is to transfer signals as transparently as possible. If you’re experiencing cable noise, start with these factors to see what you can do to improve signal quality.

Looking for high quality studio cables? Check out our wide selection of studio-ready cables to get the cleanest sound you need.

- Hosa

Audio Cable vs Adapter — The Great Debate

You’ve probably found yourself in the situation of having a cable with one correct end, but not the other. Your choices at that point are between purchasing a brand new cable with the correct termination, or using an adapter that will conform the incorrect end to the connector type you require. Is there a correct answer to this everyday riddle?

The Case for Adapters

Adapter Pros

Passive audio adapters are convenient, versatile, and almost required for any gigging professional. They allow you to convert any cable with a certain connection type to another, meaning you don’t have to just rely on cables with two correct ends. Having one of every cable you could possibly need just isn’t practical, and if you’re a performer, chances are you are going to rely on a venue for some of your cabling. Maybe the venue only has XLR cables available, but you need a ¼ in connection. Having an XLRM or XLRF to ¼ in adapter can be a life-saver and solve that issue before it ever becomes a problem. Audio adapters are also inexpensive, making it easy to carry a full arsenal of solutions.

Have two cables you need to combine to make a longer run? Use a coupler or gender changer. Have a straight end but need a right angle? Use a right angle adapter. Job done, quick and easy.

Adapter Cons

Like anything else, the more connection points you introduce, the more failure points are possible. If an adapter goes bad or isn’t making a connection, it may take more time to troubleshoot where the issue is coming from, which is especially frustrating at a gig. With frequent use, adapters are more likely to stop working, or work intermittently. It’s not uncommon for people to cycle through many 3.5 mm to ¼ in headphone adapters when consistently being plugged and unplugged. You also add length to the connection, which in some cases could add stress to the input jack on the device you’re using.

Will You Lose Signal?

While it’s possible to experience some small kind of voltage loss by using passive adapters, to the human ear, you’d be hard pressed to notice them. Passive adapters are connection point to connection point, so they won’t introduce capacitance or interference by adding cable length.

The Case for Cables

Cable Pros

A pre-terminated audio cable is all you need when available. You don’t have to worry about putting stress on the input jack of any device, making the connection as compact and secure as possible. If a problem should arise, there are also less failure points to troubleshoot and diagnose quickly.

Cable Cons

If you experience a cable failure and must rely on a venue, you could find yourself out of luck. As stated earlier, it’s not always practical to have backups for each cable you need, and sometimes you might find the right connector ends, but the incorrect length.

Why Not Both Audio Cables and Adapters?

Audio cables and adapters have a necessary purpose to serve, both with advantages and disadvantages. When possible, it’s best to have the correct cable for any direct connection. If you’re a gigging professional who deals with many cables types, a small investment into passive adapters could be the difference between losing or saving a performance.

Better Safe Than Sorry

Always be sure to test your cables and adapters before gigging, which can be done quickly and easily with our CBT-500 Cable Tester. You’ll save yourself a lot of headaches later.

To see all the cable types that Hosa offers, you can use our handy Cable Finder, or see all of Hosa’s audio adapter options here.

- Hosa

Hosa Edge Cables: Real or Hype?

Many guitar, microphone, and speaker cable options exist in the market with a host of specifications touting their features, especially as they become more expensive. Understandably, players want to know that their hard earned money is going towards superior quality and craftsmanship. When it comes to high-end cables, there can be a lot of marketing-speak thrown around. All of this talk can be difficult to parse through to find what is true or what the human ear can even detect. You’ve probably seen professionals and artists tout our Edge series cables and asked yourself what makes them special, so let’s cut through the hype and get down to brass tacks.

What is Capacitance and Why Does it Matter to Your Sound?

In the cable world, especially when it comes to guitar cables, we often talk about the importance of capacitance. Capacitance is the ratio of the change in electric charge of a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential. In cables, it’s most ideal to have lower capacitance because that means less resistance and thus a more pure signal passes through.

In instrument cables, which are unbalanced, the longer the length of the cable, the more inherent capacitance you introduce. This will naturally degrade the audio signal, most notably with loss in the higher frequencies, where brightness and detail are stored. The lower a cable’s capacitance, the more detail is preserved along its run. This is important because once those frequencies are rolled off, they’re gone.

Hosa Edge Capacitance Measurements

For reference, capacitance is measured in picofarads (pF) per meter or foot. The Edge Instrument cable’s capacitance is 68.24 pF per meter or 20.80 pF per foot, while the Edge Microphone cable’s capacitance is 109.53 pF per meter or 33.38 pF per foot.

When compared to other instrument cables on the market, these measurements rank among the best at preserving the integrity of the sound coming from a guitar or microphone, which are passive circuits. Some companies may advertise that their cables add some kind of frequency or response to your chain, but as we discussed in our previous article about whether cables change your sound, cables don’t add to your sound, they either preserve or degrade it.

The Cable Build

Now that we’ve established Edge has some of the best-in-class capacitance among its counterparts, we’ll break down the components of the microphone and instrument cables to explain how each layer contributes to the clarity and reliability players have come to expect from Hosa Edge cables.

20 AWG OFC Conductor

The conductor at the center of the cable is what carries the signal between the ends. The lower the AWG (American wire gauge) is, the larger the conductor. 20 AWG is a large size conductor for the amount of voltage an instrument or mic cable needs to transfer, allowing there to be less resistance. Since cables are a cumulative effect, we use OFC (oxygen free copper) to minimize impurities, which works better in longer cable runs.

Polyethylene

A dielectric composite that acts as an electronic resistor, polyethylene keeps the charge from the conductor isolated, better preserving the signal inside.

Conductive PVC

This PVC layer dissipates static charges and electrostatic discharge, adding another layer of protection to keep the signal inside the conductor while keeping additional interference out.

OFC Braided Shielding

Mic and instrument levels are low in volume, requiring a preamp to boost them. This means that any unwanted noise a poorly-shielded cable picks up from the outside environment will be amplified along with it, creating unwelcome distortions in the sound. The shield in any cable is the main barrier to such interferences. The braided shielding in Edge microphone and instrument cables provides 95% coverage while allowing flexibility along its length. It’s among the most robust shielding on the market for these kinds of cables and, along with the lubricated paper surrounding it, creates extra-redundancy for optimal clarity.

As an added benefit of braided shielding, the mesh is such that twisting the cable becomes much more difficult and the cable resists breakage and shorts inside much more effectively.

Hi-Flex PVC

When you have braided shielding and tightly-packed components such as in Edge cables, there is the risk of creating a very stiff cable once the jacket is applied. The hi-flex PVC Hosa uses allows for optimal noise reduction and clarity while still being flexible.

Genuine Neutrik Connectors

Neutrik AG connectors are world-class connectors known for their reliability and consistency. They are easy to service and have a unique strain-relief that is among the most effective in resisting the kinds of solder-breaks from constant pulling and tugging that plague cheaper connector types. The Neutrik ends on Hosa’s Edge microphone and instrument cables also have gold-plated connectors, which are more resistant to corrosion over time than nickel.

Edge Guitar Wiring DiagramEdge Microphone Wiring Diagram

Edge Speaker Cable

The last cable type currently in the Edge line is speaker cables. These come in speakON and ¼ inch configurations.

Since the speaker level has already been amplified, it’s not prone to exterior noise and interference the way mic and instrument levels are, thus it doesn’t require shielding. What it does require is an adequately sized conductor as it will not only be transmitting audio, but also power. Edge speaker cables use a 12 AWG OFC conductor, offering greater resistance and running more power over longer distances.

Edge Speaker Wiring Diagram

The Right Cable Components for the Right Purpose

With over-thirty five years of expertise in connectivity, Hosa set out to provide a true high-end cable that gives you the most clarity possible while withstanding the rigors of the road without the excessive price tag many boutique cables command. To experience the difference yourself, find it at your preferred Hosa reseller.

- Hosa

Do Audio Cables Affect Sound Quality?

The cable industry is a small but competitive place, with some companies making big claims about why their audio cables are better than others. We’ll take you through the cable components, claims, and myths to “cut through the noise” and explain when cables affect your sound.

Conductor

A cable’s conductor is the wire that conducts the electricity needed to pass signal and power. Conductors of appropriate size and material preserve the integrity of electrical transfer through the cable from the original source. Should the conductor be too small or made of inferior conductive metals, the audio signal will encounter more resistance and the sound will change.

Conductive Materials

Silver is the most conductive metal, which the human ear perceives as a brighter and more present sound. You don’t often see silver used in cables due mainly to its price.

Copper is the second most conductive metal and most commonly used in cables When compared to silver, the human ear perceives copper as a more balanced and “warm” sound. To learn more and hear how silver and copper compare, check out our previous story, The Advantage of Silver Cable.

Other common conductive metals for cables are gold and aluminum. Gold isn’t as conductive as silver or copper, and due to its cost, it’s never used as a primary conductor. Instead, gold is often used as a coating on cable connector ends, which we will cover below. Aluminum has much lower conductivity and is typically found in the most inexpensive audio cables, which lack the same clarity and brightness of sound.

Shielding

Part of audio quality is in cancelling or limiting noise that the conductor picks up between sources. In the case of balanced cables, shielding is less important because they typically transmit line-level audio signals that don’t need to be boosted, and part of their design is to carry two identical signals in opposite polarity before reversing one in the end, which cancels the noise.

Unbalanced cables are more prone to pick up unwanted noise in longer runs since the ground wire inside acts as an antenna, making it more susceptible to interference. Check out this video by CS Guitars for a visual breakdown of the difference in sound.

Instrument & Mic Cables

Shielding in these cables becomes much more important because their levels are comparatively low. The more noise they pick up, the more it gets amplified when boosted by a preamp, which is why you see manufacturers promote braided shielding in these cables. The braid provides more complete coverage of the conductor, minimizing noise that would degrade the sound.

Connectors

These are the aspects of every cable that you actually get to see, and influence. Most often connectors are made with a combination of nickel, rhodium, or gold-plating. The primary reason these metals are used isn’t because of their conductivity, but because they resist corrosion more effectively.

If there is any part of the connector that can most influence the sound, it’s likely to come from the solder point. Should the solder point break or degrade, you’re sure to experience less than desirable influences to your sound.

Conventional Wisdom or Audio Myth?

There are a lot of claims manufacturers and audiophiles make when it comes to cables. We couldn’t possibly answer them all, but here are a couple common ones that relate to the information above:

Gold-Plated Connectors Improve Your Tone

Although gold is the third most conductive metal behind copper, it would be rather dubious to claim any significant audible benefits of gold-plated connectors to the human ear. Aside from the gold plate being very thin, it’s really meant to protect the connector tip from oxidation. Ever notice sometimes old cables get discoloration and corrosion from the atmosphere and use? Gold withstands harsh conditions far more effectively.

OFC Sounds Better

OFC stands for Oxygen Free Copper, which is a grade given to copper with less than 0.001% oxygen. This is done to remove impurities in the copper and allow electrons to travel with less resistance, meaning more conductivity.

It’s worth noting that many have voiced skepticism that such conductive improvements are significant in an audio application. There’s little doubt some marketing-speak has exaggerated the difference OFC makes in cables, especially since few claims have been properly tested, or objectively observed.

But while there may be some mistruths or exaggerations when it comes to OFC affecting your sound, there are still reasons it’s beneficial. As pointed out in this Westlake Pro article, cables are many parts with a cumulative effect and OFC allows for less resistance on a subatomic level since electrons don’t travel in a straight line. OFC also runs cooler, is more durable, resists shorts and corrosion, and performs better in longer cable runs. It’s for these reasons that Hosa uses OFC in all of our cables without any misleading claims or price-gouging.

So, Do Audio Cables Make a Difference?

They certainly can, but it’s important to note that cables don’t “improve” your sound. Their purpose is to translate sound from the source as transparently as possible. Along the way, cables can pick up extra noise or experience degradation if the required specifications for their use are not met, which differs based on the context.

Want to learn more about why cables are important? Check out our video which goes in more depth about what the specs mean and why they matter:

- Hosa

Advantages of Silver Core Cables: When Are They the Better Choice?

What makes a silver core cable “better” than a copper core cable? And when does it make sense to use one? We break everything down.

Silver core cables have been around a while but have recently grown more popular among producers, musicians, and audiophiles for their transparency, neutrality, and conductive properties.

Of course, there’s nothing wrong with copper conductor cables. In fact, most cables on the market have copper cores and components. They perform great and come at a good price for most musicians. But if you’re looking to get something more out of your setup – something cleaner, brighter, or perhaps, more articulate – silver core cables might have some intriguing advantages for you.

What are the Biggest Advantages of Silver Core Cables?

Advantage #1 – Fidelity

Silver has more conductive properties and interacts with impedance* differently. This makes it easier to accurately reproduce the source signal.

Most times when people compare a copper to silver conductor cable, their ears immediately pick up that the silver seems audibly brighter. For some people the sound could be too bright. That’s why some silver cables on the market use a thin layer of copper around the silver conductor, to add back some of the warmth and control the brighter peaks.

But a brighter, cleaner sound can improve overall clarity and transparency of a recording mix, which is ideal in music genres where things like note separation or soundstage matter more.

Check out an example of the sound quality in the video below. You’ll notice our Zaolla silver core cable produces clean, crisp and bright notes.

Advantage #2 – Studio Outboard Cabling

High end recording studios invest thousands of dollars on rare and boutique audio equipment, such as Neve preamps. Naturally they want to get the most out of their audio gear.

The conductive advantage of silver becomes much more important when you consider that any studio with outboard gear is likely using hundreds of feet of cable when you add them all together. The more they can preserve the integrity of their signal, the more they can get out of their equipment, the more meaningful that silver-to-copper difference becomes.

So, while a lone silver guitar cable will make a noticeable difference, chances are other cables with copper or aluminum conductors are also part of the chain. Using solid silver in shorter runs across lots of outboard equipment has a cumulative effect that makes the result worthwhile.

Why Aren’t All Cables Made with Silver?

We know that silver is 7% more conductive than copper, so it stands to reason that silver should be used in every cable instead of copper, right? Not quite. There are other factors at play.

The first reason silver isn’t as widely used is because it’s a much rarer material than copper, making it much more expensive.

The second reason is silver is more sensitive to oxidation. While you can go a long way with copper cables being exposed to many environmental changes, silver cables require more mindful consideration.

Conclusion – It’s All About Sound Quality

So, why choose silver cables in the first place if they are more prone to oxidize and more expensive? How you answer is all based on what matters most to you. If higher fidelity is important to your sound or how you record music, then silver cables should probably make their way into your setup.

And when you’re ready to hear the difference silver can bring to your sound, our Zaolla Silverline cables can help. Electronic DJ and music producer Bad Boy Bill said it best: “I started using Zaolla Silverline cables a few years ago when I really wanted to upgrade the sound quality in my studio. I use Zaolla Silverline for every single connection in my studio… In terms of sound quality, what I put in is exactly what I get out – the music sounds rich and full.”

To learn more about what our Zaolla Silverline cables are made from, visit the downloads page or FAQ section on the Zaolla website. You can purchase these unique and world-class cables through zaolla.com.

*Impedance is the effective resistance of an electric circuit or component to alternating current, arising from the combined effects of ohmic resistance and reactance. For a more detailed synopsis, Sound on Sound did an excellent writeup that can be found here.

- Hosa

Why Cables Matter – Your Questions Answered

Breaking down what a cable’s made of and why it makes a difference

It’s often the things we don’t think about that can have a huge influence on our results. In the world of cooking, it may be the type of knife or cutting board we use; in automobiles, the grade of oil put in our engines; in audio & video, the quality and type of cables can make for dramatic differences that often get underappreciated.

There will be some people out there who say that a cable is just a cable, that varying prices and shiny features don’t really matter or make a difference. Today we’ll be focusing on the construction of audio cables like instrument, microphone, speaker, and interconnects, and explaining the many differences you see in the marketplace and why they do, in fact, matter.

What is a conductor?

The conductor is the copper wire that transmits the signal from one end of the cable to another. How we measure the size of the conductor is in AWG, which is an initialism for American Wire Gauge. It’s important to know when measuring gauge, the higher the gauge is, the thinner the wire will be and the more resistance there is to the flow of current. The thicker a conductor is, and thus the less resistance there is to the flow of current, the lower its gauge number will be.

For example, our standard series speaker cables use a 16 AWG OFC (oxygen-free-copper) conductor, and our Edge series speaker cables use a 12 AWG OFC conductor. You can see the difference in the thickness of each cable alone, but you can’t just rely on thickness since there are instances where companies use a thin conductor with a thicker jacket surrounding it.

Why are there such stark differences in the size of conductors from cable to cable? Simply put, some require a larger conductor depending on how much voltage they’re trying to transmit. The amount a speaker cable needs to transmit signal & power requires much more than an interconnect that you would use to connect your audio interface to your studio monitors.

Along with copper, you may see other metals used in conductors and shields such as aluminum, silver, and gold. Our Zaolla Silverline cables, for example, use a solid silver conductor, which is much more conductive than copper. Our Edge guitar cables also use Neutrik connectors with gold plated ends, which is more conductive and less prone to corrosion than nickel. Of course, adding these components is significantly more expensive, hence you see them far less. On the opposite end, aluminum is a less conductive metal than copper but some inexpensive cables will use an aluminum conductor with a thin layer of copper over the top to reduce cost.

 

What are the types of shielding and what are the differences?

There are two main types of shielding used in audio cables: braided, and spiral or serve shielding.

Braided Shielding

Braided shielding is a woven mesh of bare or tinned copper wires which provides a low-resistance path to ground but does not provide 100% coverage. Depending on the tightness of the weave, braids typically provide between 70% and 95% coverage. Since copper has higher conductivity than aluminum and the braid has more bulk for conducting noise, the braid is most effective as a shield. However, it adds size and cost to the cable along with reduced flexibility depending on the tightness of the mesh.

Our own guitar cables use braided shielding and vary in this same regard, as well. For example, our standard series guitar cables provide 90% braid coverage, while our Edge series guitar cables provide 95%.

Spiral Shielding

Spiral or serve shielding is similar to a braided shield, but instead of being woven together, the copper strands spiral around the conductor. It’s more flexible, cheaper, and quicker to manufacture than a braid, but as it’s bent or twisted, you get more opportunities for gaps in the shield to open and absorb interference as the strands unspiral.

Our interconnects rely on spiral shielding, which is more than enough due to the fact that they stay mostly stationary and their signal is boosted to line level that’s less prone to pick up interference. Mic and instrument level is significantly lower, so any interference it picks up will amplify dramatically when the signal is boosted, hence the need for more robust braided shielding.

Foil Shielding

Although not common in the types of cables we’re covering, another shielding type you may encounter, such as in our network or Cat 6 cables is foil shielding, which is a thin layer of aluminum that provides complete coverage of the conductors it surrounds. It is thin, which makes it harder to work with, especially when applying a connector. It also tends to be an added layer to an existing shield.

 

Why so many types of connectors?

If you’re like most people and have owned multitudes of cables from different brands, you’ll no doubt have noticed that connector types vary widely in aesthetic and in build quality. While it would take a whole post itself to explain nuances for all the different connector types, we’ll use the XLR cables from our Standard, Pro, and Edge series cables to illustrate:

The standard uses a common connector with nickel-plated pins, metallic housing, rubber strain relief, and the conductors use lead-free solder connected directly to the pins.

The Pro series connector is made by REAN. It uses silver-plated contacts, which is a more conductive metal than nickel or copper, zinc diecast housing, chuck-type strain relief, and a rubber boot kink protection.

The Edge series connector is made by Neutrik AG which uses nickel housing with a zinc diecast shell, gold-plated contacts which are more conductive and less prone to corrosion than nickel, chuck-type strain relief, and a boot with polyurethane gland.

 

Are more expensive cables better?

In some instances, but not necessarily. Component quality can absolutely influence whether a cable is more expensive or not, but often times other factors like labor play a bigger part in how much the item costs. Take the example of Neutrik; While the components are top quality, much of the resulting cost is for the time, quality control, and lower tolerances used in their construction. You could build a connector using those same components overseas and the result would be less expensive to the consumer, but Neutrik’s manufacturing also comes with a well-deserved reputation of quality craftsmanship. There are other in-between scenarios where raw parts are manufactured overseas but then assembled in the United States to save on labor and material costs while still providing some quality assurance. So, having a cable manufactured overseas doesn’t inherently make it inferior, but it depends on the level of quality in craftsmanship that the manufacturer uses before putting products on the shelf.

We hope that was informative so next time you see a cable that lists its specifications, you have a better understanding of the quality to cost ratio in order to make an informed purchase based on which option best suits your needs. Any other questions, you can leave them in the comments of the YouTube video, or contact us directly with this contact form and we’ll be happy to answer them.

- Dylan